Chandigarh (local pronunciation: [tʃə̃ˈɖiːɡəɽʱ]) is a city and a union territory of India that serves as the capital of the Indian states of Punjab and Haryana. As a union territory, the city is governed directly by the Union Government and is not part of either state.
Chandigarh is bordered by the state of Punjab to the north, west and south, and to the state of Haryana to the east. Chandigarh is considered to be a part of the Chandigarh capital region or Greater Chandigarh, which includes Chandigarh, and the cities of Mohali, Zirakpur, Kharar, Kurali (in Punjab) and the city of Panchkula (in Haryana).
Chandigarh was one of the early planned cities in the post-independence India and is internationally known for its architecture and urban design. The master plan of the city was prepared by Swiss-French architect Le Corbusier, which transformed from earlier plans created by the Polish architect Maciej Nowicki and the American planner Albert Mayer. Most of the government buildings and housing in the city, were designed by the Chandigarh Capital Project Team headed by Le Corbusier, Jane Drew and Maxwell Fry. In 2015, an article published by BBC named Chandigarh as one of the perfect cities of the world in terms of architecture, cultural growth and modernisation.
Chandigarh’s Capitol Complex was in July 2016 declared by UNESCO as World Heritage at the 40th session of World Heritage Conference held in Istanbul. UNESCO inscription was under “The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier an outstanding contribution to the Modern Movement”. The Capitol Complex buildings include the Punjab and Haryana High Court, Punjab and Haryana Secretariat and Punjab and Haryana Assembly along with monuments Open hand, Martyrs Memorial, Geometric Hill and Tower of Shadow.
The city tops the list of Indian States and Union Territories by per capita income followed by Haryana and Delhi respectively in the country. The city was reported to be the cleanest in India in 2010, based on a national government study. In 2016, Chandigarh was declared as the second cleanest city of India under Swachh Bharat Survekshan. The union territory also heads the list of Indian states and territories according to Human Development Index. In 2015, a survey by LG Electronics, ranked Chandigarh as the happiest city in India over the happiness index. The metropolitan of Chandigarh-Mohali-Panchkula collectively forms a Tri-city, with a combined population of over 2 million. Chandigarh is also known to be the first smoke-free city in India.
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