Changsha ( ʈʂʰɑŋʂa; simplified Chinese: 长沙; traditional Chinese: 長沙; pinyin: cháng shā ) is the capital of Hunan province, south central China. It covers 11,819 km2 (4,563 sq mi) and is bordered by Yueyang and Yiyang to the north, Loudi to the west, Xiangtan and Zhuzhou to the south, Yichun and Pingxiang of Jiangxi province to the east. According to 2010 Census,Changsha had 7,044,118 residents, constituting 10.72% of the province's population.
Geographically Changsha is located in the Xiang river valley plain, bordering on Luoxiao Mountains on the east, Wuling Mountains on the west, edging in Dongting Lake on the north and bounded on the south by Hengshan Mountains. It has a moist monsoon climate of the subtropical zone. The average annual air temperature is 16.8–17.3 °C and the rainfall 1,358.6–1,552.5 mm.
Changsha is a famous historical and cultural city with a history of over 3,000 years. Changsha is famous for that it was the capital of Changsha State in the Han Dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD), and the capital of Chu State (907–951) in Ten Kingdoms period. The lacquerware and Silk Texts recovered from Mawangdui Han tombs (2nd century BC) there are an indication of the richness of local craft traditions. In 1904 Changsha was opened to foreign trade, and large numbers of Europeans and Americans settled there. Changsha was the site of Mao Zedong's conversion to communism. It was also the scene of major battles in the Sino-Japanese War (1931–1945) and was briefly occupied by the Japanese. Nowadays, Changsha is an important commercial, manufacturing and transportation center in China.
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