Soekarno–Hatta International Airport (Indonesian: Bandar Udara Internasional Soekarno–Hatta) (IATA: CGK, ICAO: WIII), abbreviated SHIA or Soetta, is the primary airport serving the Greater Jakarta area on the island of Java, Indonesia. Named after the first president and vice-president of Indonesia, Soekarno and Mohammad Hatta, the airport is located in Benda, Tangerang, approximately 20 km northwest of central Jakarta. Due to its proximity to the suburb of Cengkareng, the airport is also known as Cengkareng Airport, with the assigned three-letter IATA designator: "CGK".
The airport commenced domestic operations in 1985 to replace the old over-capacity Kemayoran Airport, and the airport was expanded by 1991 to replace Halim Perdanakusuma Airport, for international flights, with Halim only having been commissioned as a temporary solution until Soekarno-Hatta was completed. Kemayoran Airport has since been demolished and it is now a residential area, while Halim still serves charter, VIP, and private flights. Recently Halim has been re-opened as Jakarta's second commercial airport for domestic flights to relieve Soekarno-Hatta which is running over-capacity, due to the rapid growth of airline travel in Indonesia.
With an original design capacity of 22 million passengers per year, Soekarno-Hatta runs at nearly triple its intended limit. Current capacity is 38 million after renovations and expansions, but the airport served 62 million passengers in 2014, making it the 8th busiest airport in the world, and the busiest airport in the Southern Hemisphere. There are nonstop flights to a large number of destinations in Asia and Australia, and several flights to Europe daily, ranking as the 17th most connected airport in the world, and the largest megahub in Asia according to OAG.
Although over capacity, after a survey from April 23 to May 3, the Airport Council International (ACI) stated on May 4, 2012 that Soekarno–Hatta International Airport is being operated safely. On August 2, 2012, the ground-breaking ceremony for Terminal 3 was held in order to transform the airport into an "Aerotropolis" airport with a capacity of 62 million passengers a year, initially expected to be completed in 2015, though it has since been delayed to 2016. A third, 3,660-by-60-metre (12,010 ft × 200 ft), parallel runway is planned to begin construction sometime in 2015 to increase its capacity to 430,000 airplanes a year, costing 4 trillion rupiah, although it has not yet started construction due to lengthy negotiations with landowners. A fourth runway is planned to begin operations by 2024 to accommodate 550,000 aircraft traffic in 2025. The two existing runways suffer from pavement and strength issues, which limits the airport's capacity to serve large aircraft: the Airbus A380 cannot feasibly serve the airport, while Garuda Indonesia's own 777-300ERs are limited in capacity when serving long-haul flights to Europe, which caused the airline to introduce an intermediate stop at Singapore on some of its flights to Amsterdam and all of its flights to London Heathrow. The airport struggles to accommodate all flights at its current limit of 72 planes per hour, frequently forming long lines to take off and land, despite this, some within the airport's operator want to reduce the number to 64 an hour, while airlines, particularly those frequently affected with delays due to heavy traffic, are lobbying to increase the capacity to 84 planes an hour. Although difficult, it is not impossible; Heathrow Airport in London and Dubai International Airport are able to serve over 100 planes an hour with two parallel runways each.
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